…individual preferences; Risk stratification and its implications for initial treatment of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer are presented here. Screening for prostate cancer, clinical presentation …

… in choosing treatment for a man with low-risk prostate cancer include the likelihood of recurrence or metastasis following treatment (risk stratification), the patient age and life expectancy, the presence …

…fairly specific for prostate cancer . The clinical value of the ERG fusion in prostate cancer is still under investigation. Neuroendocrine tumors include prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation

… aggressiveness of the prostate cancer, as estimated by risk stratification. Two large studies illustrate the relationships between age, comorbidity, and the natural history of prostate cancer: A study from Surveillance

…definition of PSA-only recurrence after treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer, its natural history, and risk stratification of these patients will be reviewed here. The diagnostic evaluation and …

… tests can add additional, independent prognostic information that may aid in risk stratification of localized prostate cancer. As new molecular tests emerge, head-to-head comparisons across multiple different

… diagnosis of prostate cancer is established, further evaluation that incorporates known risk factors is required to determine appropriate treatment options. The prostate cancer staging system… The initial clinical presentation including indications for biopsy, the ramifications of risk stratification, and the approach to treatment are discussed separately. The staging system developed …

Prostate cancer is increasingly diagnosed in younger men and at an earlier disease stage . However, some men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer have a more extensive primary tumor (T2b or higher),… potentially fatal disease. Risk stratification uses the clinical stage of disease (tumor, node, metastasis [TNM]), baseline serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), and the histologic grade group based upon …

…course for most men, prostate cancer survivors have a higher risk of death from non-cancer causes . In the United States alone, over three million men are survivors of prostate cancer, comprising 43 percent …

… clinically localized prostate cancer will be reviewed here. The application of these techniques to men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer is discussed separately,… node [N], metastasis [M]), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and Gleason score . Risk stratification is discussed in detail separately. In brief, low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups are …

… Free PSA may be useful for risk stratification in men with prostate cancer. A lower percentage of f/t PSA may be associated with a more aggressive form of prostate cancer. This was illustrated in a study …

…the initial treatment of localized prostate cancer as well as its use in the salvage setting is discussed here. Standard treatment options for early prostate cancer and the approach to patients with local …

  • Radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer …prostatectomy in the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer will be reviewed here. Overall treatment options for men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and the factors influencing the choice of therapy …

Management of malignant pleural effusions

… assessed prognostic factors derived and validated a risk stratification system called the LENT score (pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase,… chemotherapy, such as lymphoma, breast cancer, small cell carcinoma of the lung, germ cell tumors, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancer. Preliminary phase I and II studies with nonsclerosant intrapleural chemotherapeutic…

… respectively) . VTE risk was greater in those with prior history of VTE; multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, gynecologic cancer, sarcoma, or metastasis of unknown origin; and female sex in … choice of agent (eg, low molecular weight heparin, warfarin, aspirin) depends on the patient risk stratification. This issue is discussed in detail separately. High Khorana score – Prophylactic anticoagulation …

… Following transurethral resection or ablation of the prostate, we suggest stool softeners. Prostate cancer can be identified in the specimen in approximately 5 percent of patients undergoing transurethral…

… lipoprotein concentration can be useful in further risk stratification of individuals deemed to be at intermediate cardiovascular… if hyperfibrinolysis is secondary to prostate cancer or acute promyelocytic leukemia,…

…Androgen deprivation therapy (bilateral orchiectomy or GnRH agonist administration) in men with prostate cancer increases the risk of clinical fractures. Bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators …

…in the immediate treatment arm, irrespective of the baseline T-score. The SABRE trial used risk stratification, and treatment was based upon a low T-score. In the five-year report from the Z-FAST trial … Denosumab for the treatment of bone loss associated with prostate cancer and for skeletal metastases is reviewed separately.…

… History of prostate cancer – The United States Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, including over 40,000 participants, found that a personal history of prostate cancer was associated… who share common heavy sun exposure and susceptible skin type, making genetic analysis and risk stratification more challenging. This concept is substantiated by studies in which CDKN2A mutation status …

…factors for fracture, such as long-term glucocorticoid therapy, androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, hypogonadism, primary hyperparathyroidism, and intestinal disorders BMD screening recommendations … some European groups recommend BMD screening based upon risk stratification,…

… Patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer receiving prednisone — For men receiving docetaxel plus prednisone for hormone refractory prostate cancer,… reactions to the taxane drugs, and this issue remains unresolved. Skin testing has been used for risk stratification, and patients with positive skin test are candidates for desensitization . Pneumonitis — …

… Although most cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed and treated while disease is localized, some men have evidence of metastatic prostate cancer at presentation, and others develop disseminated disease …

…165,000 new prostate cancer diagnoses and approximately 29,000 prostate cancer deaths . Prostate cancer is second only to nonmelanoma skin cancer and lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer and cancer …

…intake and prostate cancer . This issue was subsequently addressed in the prospective Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial . There was no association between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in 10 …

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, with approximately 165,000 new prostate cancer diagnoses and approximately 29,000 prostate cancer deaths estimated in the United States in 2018 . …

… risk of developing prostate cancer: The magnitude of increased risk was illustrated by a study from the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) that compared the risk of prostate cancer in 51,897 men who …

…chemotherapy in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer . In the TAX-327 trial, 1006 men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned to docetaxel (75

…used and important for the care of patients with prostate cancer. Additional regimens may be added over time, particularly as treatment for prostate cancer evolves. This topic review is intended to provide …

…considerable controversy, and many men continue to be screened for prostate cancer, although the rate of screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer has declined in all age groups. An overview of the clinical …

Overview of the treatment of disseminated castration-sensitive prostate cancer

…men with prostate cancer. Bone metastases may either be present at the time of initial diagnosis of prostate cancer or develop subsequently in the context of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Advanced …

…inhibitor for prostate cancer chemoprevention . These include the following: 5-AR inhibitors decrease, but do not eliminate, the risk of prostate cancer. An elevated rate of high-grade prostate cancers has been …

…initiation and progression of prostate cancer, particularly those that accompany metastatic disease and castration resistance. The diagnosis, staging, and treatment of prostate cancer are covered elsewhere. …

… of advanced disease. Symptoms due to the primary tumor are the same as those seen with other prostate cancers, and reflect obstruction of urinary outflow and invasion of adjacent structures. Prostate ESCC …

…low-grade prostate cancer and to determine its clinical significance. A comparison between prostatic adenocarcinoma, high-grade PIN, and AAH is listed in the table Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDCP) …

…used in prostate cancer patients. Although there is conflicting data on whether the use of statins affects the incidence of prostate cancer, the impact of statin use on men with prostate cancer has been …

…approach in men with low-risk prostate cancer. African American ethnicity is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer. In this population, prostate cancer has a significantly earlier age …

Bone metastases in advanced prostate cancer: Management

…of men with advanced prostate cancer are discussed separately. External beam radiation therapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone pain that is …

…newly diagnosed prostate cancer based upon their risk of local recurrence or dissemination, and the application of these techniques to men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer are discussed …

Prostate cancer will be diagnosed in approximately 165,000 men in the United States in 2018 and will account for approximately 29,000 deaths . Worldwide, prostate cancer will account for over 1,600,000 …

…here. The management of patients with disseminated prostate cancer is discussed separately. Monitoring PSA after treatment of localized prostate cancer can lead to the identification of men with a PSA-only …

…following ADT; this is referred to as castration-resistant prostate cancer. Contemporary research in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer has led to the development of multiple agents that improved …

…localized. However, the prolonged natural history of prostate cancer, and the relatively advanced age and comorbidity often present in men with prostate cancer make the role of further treatment uncertain in …

…castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Loss of efficacy of ADT in controlling prostate cancer may be mediated by the intracellular conversion of steroid precursors to androgenic steroids within prostate cancer cells …

…prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer is discussed elsewhere. The routine monitoring of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after treatment of early stage prostate cancer has led to the identification …

…castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Ketoconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent that inhibits steroid hormone synthesis, and it also has a direct cytotoxic effect on prostatic cancer cells in vitro …

…significantly associated with an increase in prostate cancer specific mortality in a study of 1722 men treated with RT for prostate cancer . The five-year prostate cancer specific mortality was significantly higher …

…or in the incidence of prostate cancer mortality (3.9 versus 5.4 percent, HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.46-1.33). In the SWOG trial 8794, 425 men with pT3 or margin-positive prostate cancer were randomly assigned …

…periprocedural management will be reviewed here. Screening for prostate cancer and the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and staging of prostate cancer are discussed elsewhere. Although generally considered

… tests can add additional, independent prognostic information that may aid in risk stratification of localized prostate cancer. As new molecular tests emerge, head-to-head comparisons across multiple different …

… diagnosis of prostate cancer is established, further evaluation that incorporates known risk factors is required to determine appropriate treatment options. The prostate cancer staging system… The initial clinical presentation including indications for biopsy, the ramifications of risk stratification, and the approach to treatment are discussed separately. The staging system developed …

Prostate cancer is increasingly diagnosed in younger men and at an earlier disease stage . However, some men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer have a more extensive primary tumor (T2b or higher),… potentially fatal disease. Risk stratification uses the clinical stage of disease (tumor, node, metastasis [TNM]), baseline serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), and the histologic grade group based upon …

…course for most men, prostate cancer survivors have a higher risk of death from non-cancer causes . In the United States alone, over three million men are survivors of prostate cancer, comprising 43 percent …

… clinically localized prostate cancer will be reviewed here. The application of these techniques to men with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk prostate cancer is discussed separately,… node [N], metastasis [M]), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and Gleason score . Risk stratification is discussed in detail separately. In brief, low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups are …

… Free PSA may be useful for risk stratification in men with prostate cancer. A lower percentage of f/t PSA may be associated with a more aggressive form of prostate cancer. This was illustrated in a study …

…the initial treatment of localized prostate cancer as well as its use in the salvage setting is discussed here. Standard treatment options for early prostate cancer and the approach to patients with local …

…prostatectomy in the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer will be reviewed here. Overall treatment options for men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and the factors influencing the choice of therapy …

Treatment of osteoporosis in men

…Androgen deprivation therapy (bilateral orchiectomy or GnRH agonist administration) in men with prostate cancer increases the risk of clinical fractures. Bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators …

Overview of the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)

… Although most cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed and treated while disease is localized, some men have evidence of metastatic prostate cancer at presentation, and others develop disseminated disease

…165,000 new prostate cancer diagnoses and approximately 29,000 prostate cancer deaths . Prostate cancer is second only to nonmelanoma skin cancer and lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer and cancer …

…intake and prostate cancer . This issue was subsequently addressed in the prospective Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial . There was no association between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in 10 …

Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men, with approximately 165,000 new prostate cancer diagnoses and approximately 29,000 prostate cancer deaths estimated in the United States in 2018 . …

… risk of developing prostate cancer: The magnitude of increased risk was illustrated by a study from the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) that compared the risk of prostate cancer in 51,897 men who …

Chemotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer

…chemotherapy in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer . In the TAX-327 trial, 1006 men with chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned to docetaxel (75 ·  Treatment protocols for castration-resistant prostate cancer

…used and important for the care of patients with prostate cancer. Additional regimens may be added over time, particularly as treatment for prostate cancer evolves. This topic review is intended to provide …

…considerable controversy, and many men continue to be screened for prostate cancer, although the rate of screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer has declined in all age groups. An overview of the clinical